Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, whose jurisdiction is called the Holy See.
His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" (meaning the see of the apostle Peter).
a small city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the Holy See.
It is as head of the Holy See, not as head of Vatican City State, that the pope receives ambassadors of states and sends them his own diplomatic representatives.
Katholikos is associated with the adverb καθόλου (katholou), a contraction of the phrase καθ' ὅλου (kath' holou), which means "according to the whole".) and the Western Church in communion with the Holy See has similarly taken "Catholic", keeping that description also after the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, when those who ceased to be in communion became known as "Protestants".
occasionally refer to the Church as the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catechism of Pope Pius X, published in 1908, also used the term "Roman" to distinguish the Catholic Church from other Christian communities which are not in full communion with the Holy See.
There are three levels of clergy, the episcopate (bishops), whose members are given a geographical jurisdiction called a diocese or eparchy; the presbyterate (priests), who serve the bishops or other superiors, often by leading local parishes; and the diaconate (deacons), who serve the bishops and priests in a variety of ministerial roles.
The Catholic Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments.
The Catholic Church teaches that it is the one true church founded by Jesus Christ, Catholic spiritual teaching includes spreading the Gospel while Catholic social teaching emphasises support for the sick, the poor and the afflicted through the corporal works of mercy.
The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world.
The word catholic is derived from the Greek word καθολικός (katholikos), which means "universal".