The most common of these were the ' Grihya-sutras', dealing with domestic ceremonies, and the ' Dharma-sutras', treating of the sacred customs and laws.
These extremely complicated bulk of ancient rules and regulations, customs, laws and rites were gradually enlarged in scope, written aphoristically and set to musical cadence and systematically arranged to constitute the ' Dharma-shastras'. The initial canto of the work narrates how ten great sages appealed to Manu to pronounce the sacred laws to them and how Manu fulfilled their wishes by asking the learned sage Bhrigu, who had been carefully taught the metrical tenets of the sacred law, to deliver his teachings.
The final chapter expounds the doctrine of karma, rebirths and salvation.
Read the Full Text Translation of Manu Smriti Present-day scholars have criticized the work significantly.
The rigidity in the caste system and the contemptible attitude towards women are not acceptable today.
C., but more recent developments state that the work in its extant form dates back to the first or second century A. The seventh chapter talks of manifold duties and responsibilities of kings.
The eighth chapter deals with the modus operandi in civil and criminal proceedings and of the proper punishments to be meted out to different caste.
The ninth and the tenth chapters relate the customs and laws regarding inheritance and property, divorce and the lawful occupations for each caste.
Chapter eleven expresses the various kinds of penance for the misdeeds.
is one of the standard books in the Hindu canon, and a basic text for all gurus to base their teachings on.
This 'revealed scripture' comprises 2684 verses, divided into twelve chapters presenting the norms of domestic, social, and religious life in India (circa 500 BC) under the Brahmin influence, and is fundamental to the understanding of ancient Indian society.
The ancient Vedic society had a structured social order where the Brahmins were esteemed as a highest and the most revered sect and assigned the holy task of acquiring ancient knowledge and learning.
The teachers of each Vedic schools composed manuals in Sanskrit, known as 'sutras', pertaining to their respective schools for the guidance of their pupils, which were highly venerated by the Brahmins and memorized by each Brahmin student.